Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) Solemn Declaration (AHG/Decl.4 (XXXVI), 2000 (Excerpts)
1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), meeting in Lome , Togo , at the 36th Assembly of our Organization, have considered the report of the Ministerial meeting of the Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) held in Abuja , from 8 to 9 May, 2000 . The Ministerial Conference was convened pursuant to the decision taken in Algiers in July 1999, proclaiming 2000 as the Year of Peace, Security and Solidarity in Africa as well as the Declaration adopted on 9 September, 1999, at our 4th Extraordinary Summit in Sirte, in the Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, which, inter-alia, decided on the establishment of an African Union and the convening of the Ministerial Conference.
2. We recall the Decisions we have taken, over the years, to promote political stability and economic development in our Continent. In the realm of promoting stability, the African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and the Declaration on the Political and Socio-Economic Situation in Africa and the Fundamental Changes Taking Place in the World, were adopted in 1990.
3. In June 1993, in Cairo , Egypt , we adopted a Declaration establishing the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution to forge, within the OAU, a new institutional dynamism for the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts. In 1981 and 1998 respectively, the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the Protocol on the establishment of the African Court on Human and People's Rights, were adopted. Both were important instruments for ensuring the promotion, protection and observance of human rights as an integral part of our Organization's wider objective of promoting collective security for durable peace and sustainable development.
4. "In July 1997, during our Summit in Harare , we took a stand against Unconstitutional Changes of Government. This led the Algiers Summit of July 1999 to adopt a decision on Unconstitutional Changes of Governments to reinforce respect for democracy, the rule of law, good governance and stability."
5. In the area of development and cooperation, the Lagos Plan of Action and the Final Act of Lagos were adopted in 1980; the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community and the Cairo Agenda for Re-launching the Economic and Social Development of Africa, were adopted in 1991 and 1995 respectively. The Sirte Declaration of September 1999, included measures for accelerating the process of economic integration and addressing the question of Africa 's indebtedness.
6. We recall that these concerns were at the core of the initiative launched by the African Leadership Forum on the CSSDCA process. We note that the conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa as proposed in the Kampala Document was not conceived as a one-off event, but rather as a process. The underlying thinking of the CSSDCA process as articulated in the four calabashes of the Kampala Document of 1991 was a recognition of the fact that the problems of security and stability in many African countries had impaired their capacity to achieve the necessary level of intra and inter-African cooperation that is required to attain the integration of the continent and critical to the continent's socio-economic development and transformation. In this regard, we have used both the revised Kampala Document and the working document elaborated by our experts in Addis Ababa to enrich our thinking on the CSSDCA process.
7. We note that all the major decisions taken by our Organization since its inception, reflect the inter-linkage between peace, stability, development, integration and cooperation. We believe that the CSSDCA process creates a synergy between the various activities currently undertaken by our Organization and should therefore help to consolidate the work of the OAU in the areas of peace, security, stability, development and cooperation. It should provide a policy development forum for the elaboration and advancement of common values within the main policy organs of the OAU.
8. We are convinced that the interactive approach embedded in the CSSDCA initiative, should provide an invaluable tool for the pursuit of the agenda of the OAU in the new millennium, with particular reference to the issues of Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation.
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES
9. In recognition of the importance of the CSSDCA, which shall encompass four major areas henceforth called Calabashes: Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in furthering Africa 's interests within the ambit of the OAU, we affirm the following general and specific principles:
(h) Democracy, good governance, respect for human and peoples' rights and the rule of law are prerequisites for the security, stability and development of the Continent;
(l) Member States should adhere in good faith to all CSSDCA principles and ensure
10. Recognizing that security should be seen in its wholesomeness and totality including the right of peoples to live in peace with access to the basic necessities of life, while fully enjoying the rights enshrined in the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights and freely participating in the affairs of their societies; and bearing in mind that Africa 's security and that of its Member States are inseparably linked with the security of all African peoples;
We affirm that:
(a) Security should be recognized as a pillar of the CSSDCA process. It is an indispensable condition for peace, stability, development and cooperation. It underscores the organic links that exist between the security of Member States as a whole and the security of each of them on the basis of their history, culture, geography and their common destiny. This implies individual and collective responsibilities exercised within the basic framework of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights and other relevant international instruments;
(b) The concept of security must embrace all aspects of society including economic, political, and social and environmental dimensions of the individual, family, and community, local and national life. The security of a nation must be based on the security of the life of the individual citizens to live in peace and to satisfy basic needs while being able to participate fully in societal affairs and enjoying freedom and fundamental human rights;
(c) The security of all Africans and their States as a whole is indispensable for stability, development and cooperation in Africa . This should be a sacred responsibility of all African States - individually and collectively- which must be exercised within the basic framework of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant international instruments;
11. Noting that stability requires that all States be guided by strict adherence to the rule of law, good governance, peoples participation in public affairs, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, the establishment of political organizations devoid of sectarian, religious, ethnic, regional and racial extremism;
We affirm that:
(a) The Executive, legislative and judicial branches of government must respect their national constitutions and adhere to the provisions of the law and other legislative enactment promulgated by National Assemblies. No one should be exempted from accountability;
(b) The active and genuine participation of citizens of every country in the decisionmaking processes and in the conduct of public affairs must be fostered and facilitated;
(c) All rights and freedoms of citizens should be promoted and protected;
(d) There shall be no hindrance to the promotion of political pluralism. All forms of extremism and intolerance foster instability;
(e) Terrorism, in all its manifestations, is inimical to stability.
PLAN OF ACTION
14. Having identified the General and Specific Principles that will guide the CSSDCA process and having reached a consensus on the need to put in place measures for the implementation of those principles, we, the Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, have agreed on the following Plan of Action.
We agree to:
a) Intensify efforts aimed at enhancing the process of democratization in Africa . In this regard, the strengthening of institutions that will sustain democracy on the continent including the holding of free and fair elections should be encouraged;
b) Adopt and implement a set of guidelines for dealing with unconstitutional and undemocratic changes in Africa in line with the Decisions that we took during the 35th Ordinary Session of our Assembly held in Algiers in 1999;
c) Encourage the participation and contribution of Civil Society in our States, to the efforts to bring about further democratization in our Continent;
d) Recommit ourselves to the promotion of Good Governance, a culture of peace and accountability by leaders and officials, as a shared community value;
e) Encourage civic education on good governance and the promotion of African values in African institutions and schools;
f) Uphold and guarantee the rule of law, the protection and defence of the rights of citizenship as acquired at independence and as provided for in national constitutions;
g) Vigorously combat racism, extreme nationalism, religious extremism and xenophobic tendencies;
h) Promote and encourage cohesion, national solidarity and identity within African societies;
i) Protect and promote respect for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, such as the freedom of expression and association, political and trade union pluralism and other forms of participatory democracy;
j) Ensure the equitable distribution of national income and wealth, as well as transparency in the exploitation of Africa 's resources. In this regard, the negative impact of external and internal interests in the exploitation of Africa's resources and corruption, which continue to fuel conflicts on the continent, should be addressed in a more cohesive and effective manner;
k) Promote greater burden-sharing in addressing refugee problems in Africa and, especially, reduce its negative impact on the environment and the economies of asylum countries;
l) Condemn genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in the Continent and undertake to cooperate with relevant institutions set up to prosecute the perpetrators. Similarly, we agree to take measures to prevent the occurrence of genocide on our Continent, and encourage ratification of the protocol on the establishment of African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the statute of the International Criminal Court.