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Human Rights Bodies - General Comments

The human rights treaty bodies publish their interpretation of the content of human rights provisions, in the form of general comments on thematic issues.

The general comments of each treaty body are listed on their respective web pages: CCPR, CESCR, CERD, CEDAW, CAT, CRC. The CMW has not yet issued any general comments.

Note that both CERD and CEDAW refer to their general comments as "general recommendations".

This page presents the general comments of all treaty bodies with keywords added to assist in identifying the range of subjects covered in each general comment and the linkages between the general comments of the different treaty bodies.

The general comments of all human rights treaty bodies are compiled annually in the document HRI/GEN/1/Rev.7.

Click here for a list of keywords.

Table of General Comments of All Treaty Bodies

No.

Subject

Keywords
Art.
Body

Date

1

Reporting obligation
[GC1 has been replaced by GC30]

Reporting; late reporting
40
CCPR

1981

2

Reporting guidelines

Reporting; reporting guidelines; form and content of reports; legislative measures; implementation; constructive dialogue
40, 2
CCPR

1981

3

Implementation at the national level

Implementation; enjoyment of human rights; publication of rights in national languages; human rights education; training of national officers
2
CCPR

1981

4

Equal enjoyment of civil and political rights by men and women

Reporting; equality between the sexes; sex discrimination; affirmative action; special measures; immigration law; marriage; non-citizens; right to hold public office; international cooperation
3
CCPR

1981

5

Derogations

Public emergency; derogation; exceptional and temporary nature of derogations; duty to inform
4
CCPR

1981

6

Right to life

Right to life; inherent right to life; war; use of force; genocide; propaganda; incitement to violence; arbitrary killing; security forces; missing and disappeared persons; infant morality; life expectancy; malnutrition; disease, death penalty; abolition of death penalty; procedural guarantees
6
CCPR

1982

7

Prohibition of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Reporting; Torture; cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment; integrity and dignity of individual; derogation; detention; safeguard; procedural guarantees; corporal punishment; excessive chastisement; pupils; patients; solitary confinement; medical or scientific experimentation; consent
7
CCPR

1982

8

Right to liberty and security of persons

Reporting; Right to liberty; right to security of the person; humane treatment; detention; lawful detention; procedural guarantees; pre-trial detention; excessive delay
9
CCPR

1982

9

Humane treatment of persons deprived of their liberty

Reporting; Right to liberty; right to security of the person; humane treatment; detention; integrity and dignity of individual; hospitals; correctional institutions; segregation of convicted and accused; segregation of juvenile offenders; rehabilitation; presumption of innocence
10
CCPR

1982

10

Freedom of opinion

Reporting; right to hold opinion without interference; freedom of expression; mass media; limitations and restrictions;
19
CCPR

1983

11

Prohibition of propanganda for war or inciting national, racial or religious hatres

Reporting; propaganda; war; incitement to violence; incitement to discrimination; racial discrimination; racial hatred; religious hatred; self-defence; self-determination
20
CCPR

1983

12

Right to self-determination

Reporting; self-determination; political status; development; natural wealth; natural resources; non-self governing territories; trust territories; non-interference in internal affairs of States
1
CCPR

1984

13

Administration of Justice (equality before the courts and right of a fair and public hearing by an independent court established by law)

Reporting; equality before the law; right ot fair and public hearing; procedural guarantees; equal access; independent judiciary; public hearings; presumption of innocence; criminal justice; juvenile offenders; miscarriage of justice
14
CCPR

1984

14

Right to life

 
6
CCPR

1984

15

Position of aliens under the Covenant

 
CCPR

1986

16

Right to privacy

 
17
CCPR

1988

17

Rights of the child

 
24
CCPR

1989

18

Non-discrimination

 
CCPR

1989

19

The family

 
23
CCPR

1990

20

Prohibition of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

 
7
CCPR

1992

21

Humane treatment of persons deprived of their liberty

 
10
CCPR

1992

22

Freedom of thought, conscience or religion

 
18
CCPR

1993

23

Rights of minorities

 
27
CCPR

1994

24

Reservations to the Covenant or Optional Protocols or declarations under article 41 of the Covenant

 
41
CCPR

1994

25

Participation in public affairs and the right to vote

 
25
CCPR

1996

26

Continuity of obligations

 
CCPR

1997

27

Freedom of movement

 
12
CCPR

1999

28

The equality of rights between men and women

 
3
CCPR

2000

29

Derogations during a state of emergency

 
4
CCPR

2001

30

Reporting obligations of States parties under article 40

 
40
CCPR

2002

31

The nature of the general legal obligation imposed on States parties

 
CCPR

2004

1

Reporting by States parties Reporting; reporting obligations; reporting process; purpose of reporting
16 and 17

CESCR

1989

2

International technical assistance measures Technical assistance; international cooperation; development
22

CESCR

1990

3

Nature of States parties' obligations Implementation; measures; legislative measures; judicial remedies; progressive realization; minimum core obligation; available resources; technical assistance; international cooperation; development
2(1)

CESCR

1990

4

Right to adequate housing Housing; adequate standard of living; adequate housing

CESCR

1991

5

Persons with disabilities Disability; persons with disabilities; positive action; equality and non-discrimination; work; social security; family; mother and child; adequate standard of living; physical and mental health; education; participation in cultural life; scientific progress; accessibility
3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

CESCR

1994

6

The economic, social and cultural rights of older persons Older persons; equality and non-discrimination; work; social security; family; adequate standard of living; physical and mental health; education; participation in cultural life; disability; accessibility
3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

CESCR

1995

7

Right to adequate housing: forced evictions Housing; adequate housing; forced eviction; internal displacement; refugees; civil and political rights; armed conflict; development; legislative measures; non-discrimination; women; children; older persons; indigenous people; ethnic minorities; vulnerable groups; effective remedy; Geneva Conventions; adequate compensation; procedural guarantees; ICCPR
11(1), 2(1). ICCPR 2(3), 17(1)

CESCR

1997

8

Relationship between economic sanctions and respect for economic, social and cultural rights Economic sanctions; food; water; health; education; work; humanitarian assistance; vulnerable groups; children; CRC; continuing obligations of affected State; obligations of imposing State
2(1), 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

CESCR

1997

9

Domestic application of the Covenant Implementation; national-level implementation; legal and judicial remedies; effective remedy; direct or indirect incorporation in national law; justiciability of ESCR; self-executing provisions; status of treaty in national courts;
2(1). ICCPR 2(3)(b)

CESCR

1998

10

Role of national human rights insitutions in the protection of economic, social and cultural rights National human rights institutions (NHRIs); indivisibility and interdependence of human rights; human rights education; scrutiny; technical assistance; benchmarks and indicators; monitoring; complaints
2(1)

CESCR

1998

11

Plans of action for primary education Education; primary education; compulsory free primary education; indivisibility and interdependence of human rights; plan of action; progressive realization; technical assistance
13, 14. CRC, CEDAW

CESCR

1999

12

Right to adequate food Food; adequate food; adequate standard of living; female-headed households; development; technical assistance; international cooperation; indivisibility and interdependence of human rights; implementation; sustainability; progressive realization; minimum core obligation; non-discrimination; legislative measures; national-level implementation; benchmarks and indicators; policy-making; monitoring;
11

CESCR

1999

13

Right to education Education; women; children; right to receive an education; equality; non-discrimination; accessibility; primary education; secondary education; technical and vocational education; higher education; fundamental education; development; policy-making; school system; educational insitutions; freedom of religion; freedom of expression; freedom of opinion; freedom of conscience; minimum standards of education; academic freedom; non-nationals; CERD; CEDAW; CRC; UNESCO; ILO; corporal punishment; progressive realization; minimum core obligation; legislative measures; international cooperation;
13

CESCR

1999

14

Right to the highest attainable standard of health Health; highest attainable standard of health; food; adequate housing; work; education; human dignity; life; equality and non-discrimination; torture; privacy; access to information; freedom of association; freedom of assembly; freedom of movement; indivisibility and interdependence of human rights; water; environment; HIV/AIDS; accessibility; mother and child; reproductive health; prevention, treatment and control of diseases; health services; women; children; older persons; persons with disabilities; indigenous peoples; legislative measures; female genital mutilation; minimum core obligation; national-level implementation; polic-making; benchmarks and indicators; effective remedy; justiciability of ESCR; national human rights institutions (NHRIs); international cooperation
12. CERD 5(e)(iv), CEDAW 11(1)(f) and 12, CRC 24

CESCR

2000

15

Right to water Water; adequate standard of living; adequate food; health; housing; human dignity; indivisibility and interdependence of human rights; accesibility; equality and non-discrimination; access to information; women; children; indigenous peoples; refugees; internal displacement; older persons; persons with disabilities; environment; sustainability; minimum core obligation; plan of action; vulnerable groups; national-level implementation; legislative measures; policy-making; development; governance; international cooperation.
11. CEDAW 14(2), CRC 24(2)

CESCR

2002

1

States parties' obligations  

CERD

1972

2

States parties obligations  

CERD

1972

3

Reporting by States  

CERD

1972

4

Reporting by States: demographic composition of the population  
9

CERD

1973

5

Reporting by States  

CERD

1977

6

Overdue reports  

CERD

1982

7

Legislation to eradicate racial discrimination  

CERD

1985

8

Identification with a particular racial or ethnic group  

CERD

1990

9

Independence of experts  

CERD

1990

10

Technical assistance  

CERD

1991

11

Non-citizens  

CERD

1993

12

Successor States  

CERD

1993

13

Training of law enforcement officials in protection of human rights  

CERD

1993

14

   

CERD

1993

15

   

CERD

1993

16

   

CERD

1993

17

Establishment of national institutions to facilitate implementation of the Convention  

CERD

1993

18

Establishment of an international tribunal to prosecute crimes against humanity  

CERD

1994

19

Racial Segregation  

CERD

1995

20

   

CERD

1996

21

Right to self-determination  

CERD

1996

22

refugees and displaced persons  

CERD

1996

23

Rights of indigenous peoples  

CERD

1997

24

   

CERD

1999

25

Gender-related dimensions of racial discrimination  

CERD

2000

26

   

CERD

2000

27

Discrimination against Roma  

CERD

2000

28

Follow-up to the World Conference against Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance  

CERD

2002

29

Descent  

CERD

2002

Non-citizens
CERD
2004
Reporting by States parties  
Reporting by States parties  
Education and public information  
Reservations  
Temporary special measures  
Effective national machinery and publicity  
Resources  
---  
Statistical data concerning the situation of women  
Tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women  
Technical advisory services for reporting obligations  
Violence against women  
Equal remuneration for work of equal value  
Female circumcision  
Avoidance of discrimination against women in national strategies for the prevention and control of AIDS  
Unpaid women workers in rural and urban family enterprises  
Measurement and quantification of the unremunerated domestic activities of women and their recognition in the gros national product  
Disabled women  
Violence against women  
Reservations  
Equality in marriage and family relations  
Amending art. 20  
Political and public life  
Women and health  
25
Temporary special measures  
4(1)
CEDAW
2004
 
The aims of education  
The role of independent human rights institutions  
HIV/AIDS and the rights of the child  
Adolescent Health  
General measures of implementation for the Convention on the Rights of the Child  
   
   

 

 

 

 
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